Desalination machine becomes more popular in united states and middle east due to the scarcity of water resources. So, most people wants know more about desalination machines. Chunke is leading manufacturer from China for Reverse Osmosis, Ultrafiltration and Electrodeionization Systems. Our high quality desalination machines can solve your water problem with affordable price.
Now, we see what is desalination machine is and how does desalination machine remove salt from your source water.
What is Desalination?
Desalination is a process that takes away mineral components from saline water. Saline water can be Sea Water, Ocean Water, Brackish Water, Deep Well Water, Borehole Water or any other water sources which has high salt content. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance, as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture.
Saltwater (especially sea water) is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. So, the by-product of the desalination process is brine. Hence, desalination is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. So, most of the modern interest in desalination is focusing on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water resources.
What is the Desalination Types?
The two major types of technologies that are used around the world for desalination machine can be broadly classified as either thermal or membrane. Meanwhile, both technologies need energy to operate and produce fresh water. Within those two broad types, there are sub-categories (processes) using different techniques. The major desalination processes are identified in Table accordingly.
Multi-Stage Flash Distillation (MSF)
Multi-Effect Distillation (MED)
Electrodialysis reversal (EDR)
Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD)
Reverse Osmosis (RO)
Thermal technologies, as the name implies, involve the heating of saline water and collecting the condensed vapor (distillate) to produce pure water. So, thermal technologies have rarely been used for brackish water desalination machine, because of the high costs involved. They have however been used for seawater desalination machine and can be sub-divided into three groups: Multi-Stage Flash Distillation (MSF), Multi-Effect Distillation (MED), and Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD).
Multi-Stage Flash Distillation (MSF)
This process involves the use of distillation through several (multi-stage) chambers. In the MSF process, each successive stage of the plant operates at progressively lower pressures. So, the feed water is first heated under high pressure, and is led into the first ‘flash chamber’, where the pressure is released, causing the water to boil rapidly resulting in sudden evaporation or ‘flashing’. This ‘flashing’ of a portion of the feed continues in each successive stage, because the pressure at each stage is lower than in the previous stage. So, the vapor generated by the flashing is converted into fresh water by being condensed on heat exchanger tubing that run through each stage. The tubes are cooled by the incoming cooler feed water. Generally, only a small percentage of the feed water is converted into vapor and condensed in thermal desalination machine.
Multi-Effect Distillation (MED)
The MED process has been used since the late 1950s and early 1960s accordingly. Multi-effect distillation occurs in a series of vessels (effects) and uses the principles of evaporation and condensation at reduced ambient pressure. In MED, a series of evaporator effects produce water at progressively lower pressures. So, water boils at lower temperatures as pressure decreases, so the water vapor of the first vessel or effect serves as the heating medium for the second, and so on. Meanwhile, the more vessels or effects there are, the higher the performance ratio. Depending upon the arrangement of the heat exchanger tubing, MED units could be classified as horizontal tube, vertical tube or vertically stacked tube bundles accordingly.
Vapor Compression Distillation
The vapor compression distillation (VCD) process is used either in combination with other processes such as the MED, or by itself. So, the heat for evaporating the water comes from the compression of vapor, rather than the direct exchange of heat from steam produced in a boiler. Vapor compression (VC) units have been built in a variety of configurations. Usually, a mechanical compressor is used to generate the heat for evaporation. The VC units are generally small in capacity, and are often used at hotels, resorts and in industrial applications for desalination machine accordingly.
Membrane technologies can be subdivided into two broad categories:
Electrodialyis/Electrodialysis Reversal (ED/EDR), and Reverse Osmosis (RO).
Electrodialysis (ED) and Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR)
Electrodialysis (ED) is a voltage-driven membrane process. Hence, an electrical potential is used to move salts through a membrane, leaving fresh water behind as product water. So, ED was commercially introduced in the 1960s, about 10 years before reverse osmosis (RO), Although ED was originally conceived as a seawater desalination process, it has generally been used for brackish water desalination.
ED depends on the following general principles in desalination machine:
- Most salts dissolved in water are ions, either positively charged (cations), or negatively charged (anions) accordingly.
- Since like poles repel each other and unlike poles attract, the ions migrate toward the electrodes with an opposite electric charge
- Suitable membranes can be constructed to permit selective passage of either anions or cations.
Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Nanofiltration (NF)
In relation to thermal processes, Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a relatively new process that was commercialized in the 1970s. Currently, RO is the most widely used method for desalination in the United States. So, the RO process uses pressure as the driving force to push saline water through a semi-permeable membrane into a product water stream and a concentrated brine stream. Meanwhile, nanofiltration (NF) is also a membrane process that is used for removal of divalent salt ions such as Calcium, Magnesium, and Sulphate. RO, on the other hand, is used for removal of Sodium and Chloride. Hence, RO processes are used for desalinating brackish water (TDS>1,500 mg/l), and seawater. So, the process is explained below:
Osmosis is a natural phenomenon by which water from a low salt concentration passes into a more concentrated solution through a semi-permeable membrane accordingly. When pressure is applied to the solution with the higher salt concentration solution, the water will flow in a reverse direction through the semi-permeable membrane, leaving the salt behind. So, this is known as the Reverse Osmosis process or RO process.
An RO desalination plant essentially consists of four major systems accordingly:
a) Pretreatment system
b) High-pressure pumps
c) Membrane systems
Brackish Water Desalination Systems
Seawater Desalination Systems
Reverse Osmosis is best way for you to remove salt from your sea water or ocean water. Chunke Seawater Desalination Machine automatically generates fresh water. All reverse osmosis systems are working in same principle, high pressure pumps send seawater to semipermeable ro membrane and filter the water. Permeate water quality is dependent on source water quality, desalination machine design, and which brands you choose for your ***water desalination system.
Chunke provides all size of seawater desalination systems for small and big business owner. To get more details about desalination process, you do not hesitate to contact with us.
Containerized Desalination Machine
One of the most significant benefits of any containerized water treatment system is the reduced site installation requirements. Container based water treatment systems arrive completely fabricated with all interconnecting piping, wiring and testing complete before the system arrives to the jobsite.
What is the Advantage of ***Portable Desalination?
- Pre-engineered ready to use
- Save water with high recovery systems complete start up documentation and training
- Low energy RO membranes that provide optimal rejection, productivity and reliability accordingly
- Epoxy coated carbon steel frame or SS304 stainless steel frame
- High quality valves, pumps and fittings provided for each unit accordingly
- Available remote monitoring and normalization available
- Compact footprint saves space consequently
- Complete maintenance service available
- Build/Own operate and lease programs at last
- Portable/ Mobile System
- Plug and Play, easy use
- Easy to connect solary energy
If you need more details about desalination machine, please feel free fill in below form. Our technical sales team contact with you in 24 hours and solve your water problem. Chunke provides to you best quality with affordable price from China.